Ability of the brain to protect Itself from damage revealed
25 February 2013 | 2888 Views
- Minister of health reveals only 6 brain surgeons left in the country | 03 July 2014
- Zimbabwean company to advise Bob Diamond's fund | 19 December 2013
- Man (33) seeks assistance to undergo brain surgery | 24 June 2013
- Kasukuwere speaks on Brainworks deal | 06 June 2013
- Brainy three-year-old girl becomes the youngest new member of Mensa | 09 February 2013
- Brain dead mom on a respirator gives birth to twins | 24 April 2012
TEHRAN - The origin of an innate ability the brain has to protect itself from damage that occurs in stroke has been explained for the first time.
The Oxford University researchers hope that harnessing this inbuilt biological mechanism, identified in rats, could help in treating stroke and preventing other neurodegenerative diseases in the future.
'We have shown for the first time that the brain has mechanisms that it can use to protect itself and keep brain cells alive,' says Professor Alastair Buchan, Head of the Medical Sciences Division and Dean of the Medical School at Oxford University, who led the work.
The researchers report their findings in the journal Nature Medicine and were funded by the UK Medical Research Council and National Institute for Health Research.
Stroke is the third most common cause of death in the UK. Every year around 150,000 people in the UK have a stroke.
It occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off. When this happens, brain cells are deprived of the oxygen and nutrients they need to function properly, and they begin to die.
'Time is brain, and the clock has started immediately after the onset of a stroke. Cells will start to die somewhere from minutes to at most 1 or 2 hours after the stroke,' says Professor Buchan.
This explains why treatment for stroke is so dependent on speed. The faster someone can reach hospital, be scanned and have drugs administered to dissolve any blood clot and get the blood flow re-started, the less damage to brain cells there will be.
It has also motivated a so-far unsuccessful search for 'neuroprotectants': drugs that can buy time and help the brain cells, or neurons, cope with damage and recover afterwards.
The Oxford University research group have now identified the first example of the brain having its own built-in form of neuroprotection, so-called 'endogenous neuroprotection'.
They did this by going back to an observation first made over 85 years ago. It has been known since 1926 that neurons in one area of the hippocampus, the part of the brain that controls memory, are able to survive being starved of oxygen, while others in a different area of the hippocampus die. But what protected that one set of cells from damage had remained a puzzle until now.
'Previous studies have focused on understanding how cells die after being depleted of oxygen and glucose. We considered a more direct approach by investigating the endogenous mechanisms that have evolved to make these cells in the hippocampus resistant,' explains first author Dr Michalis Papadakis, Scientific Director of the Laboratory of Cerebral Ischaemia at Oxford University.
Working in rats, the researchers found that production of a specific protein called hamartin allowed the cells to survive being starved of oxygen and glucose, as would happen after a stroke.
They showed that the neurons die in the other part of the hippocampus because of a lack of the hamartin response.
The team was then able to show that stimulating production of hamartin offered greater protection for the neurons.
Professor Buchan says: 'This is causally related to cell survival. If we block hamartin, the neurons die when blood flow is stopped. If we put hamartin back, the cells survive once more.'
Finally, the researchers were able to identify the biological pathway through which hamartin acts to enable the nerve cells to cope with damage when starved of energy and oxygen.
The group points out that knowing the natural biological mechanism that leads to neuroprotection opens up the possibility of developing drugs that mimic hamartin's effect.
Professor Buchan says: 'There is a great deal of work ahead if this is to be translated into the clinic, but we now have a neuroprotective strategy for the first time. Our next steps will be to see if we can find small molecule drug candidates that mimic what hamartin does and keep brain cells alive.
'While we are focusing on stroke, neuroprotective drugs may also be of interest in other conditions that see early death of brain cells including Alzheimer's and motor neuron disease,' he suggests.
Most Read Stories
- eBay seller puts a torn piece of paper with the word 'The' on auction, bids $98 | 5571 views
- Econet pushing for smart-phone penetration | 4404 views
- 3D printing gives Isuzu KB engineers the edge | 4196 views
- Bus designed to drive on deep water - Video | 4153 views
- Facebook goes down | 3404 views
- Hackers take over Israeli army Twitter account | 3078 views
Latest Classifieds (Click Here For More)
Staff Reporter | 23 July 2014 | 666 Views
Sapa | 23 July 2014 | 804 Views
Peacemaker Zano | 23 July 2014 | 303 Views
Onward Chiswa | 23 July 2014 | 435 Views
Nomusa Garikai | 23 July 2014 | 1265 Views
APA | 23 July 2014 | 875 Views
Al Jazeera | 23 July 2014 | 398 Views
Staff Reporter | 23 July 2014 | 333 Views
Staff reporter | 23 July 2014 | 672 Views
Suitable Kajau | 23 July 2014 | 280 Views
Mthulisi Mathuthu | 23 July 2014 | 414 Views
Nomalanga Moyo | 23 July 2014 | 668 Views
Staff reporter | 23 July 2014 | 741 Views
Sapa | 23 July 2014 | 1644 Views
Staff reporter | 23 July 2014 | 3024 Views
Staff reporter | 23 July 2014 | 1705 Views
Staff reporter | 23 July 2014 | 1552 Views
Staff reporter | 23 July 2014 | 1008 Views
Staff reporter | 23 July 2014 | 2695 Views
Staff reporter | 23 July 2014 | 1337 Views
Moyo Roy | 23 July 2014 | 1376 Views
Staff Reporter | 23 July 2014 | 3933 Views
Staff reporter | 23 July 2014 | 3143 Views
Staff reporter | 23 July 2014 | 1506 Views
Staff reporter | 23 July 2014 | 1588 Views
Nobuhle Virgie | 23 July 2014 | 2708 Views
Staff Reporter | 23 July 2014 | 2713 Views
Staff reporter | 23 July 2014 | 3295 Views
Staff reporter | 23 July 2014 | 3630 Views
Staff Reporter | 23 July 2014 | 4649 Views
Entertainment reporters | 23 July 2014 | 836 Views
Entertainment Reporter | 23 July 2014 | 1220 Views
Staff Reporter | 23 July 2014 | 2237 Views
Staff reporter | 22 July 2014 | 2938 Views
Nokutula Ncube | 22 July 2014 | 910 Views
Yeukai Karengezeka | 21 July 2014 | 4641 Views
Staff reporter | 20 July 2014 | 5319 Views
Vusumuzi Ndlovu | 19 July 2014 | 4237 Views