Final draft Constitution of Zimbabwe
28 January 2013 | 6453 Views
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Distributed by the Parliamentary Monitoring Trust of Zimbabwe
CONSTITUTION OF ZIMBABWE
(FINAL DRAFT : JANUARY 2013)
CONSTITUTION OF ZIMBABWE
ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS
1. The Republic.
2. Supremacy of Constitution.
3. Founding values and principles.
4. National Flag, National Anthem, Public Seal and Coat of Arms.
5. Tiers of government.
7. Promotion of public awareness of Constitution.
8. Objectives to guide State and all institutions and agencies of Government.
9. Good governance.
10. National unity, peace and stability.
11. Fostering of fundamental rights and freedoms.
12. Foreign policy.
13. National development.
14. Empowerment and employment creation.
15. Food security.
17. Gender balance.
18. Fair regional representation.
21. Elderly persons.
22. Persons with disabilities.
23. Veterans of the liberation struggle.
24. Work and labour relations.
25. Protection of the family.
29. Health services.
30. Social welfare.
31. Legal aid.
32. Sporting and recreational facilities.
33. Preservation of traditional knowledge.
34. Domestication of international instruments.
35. Zimbabwean citizenship.
36. Citizenship by birth.
37. Citizenship by descent.
38. Citizenship by registration.
39. Revocation of citizenship.
40. Retention of citizenship despite marriage or dissolution of marriage.
41. Citizenship and Immigration Board.
42. Powers of Parliament in regard to citizenship.
43. Continuation and restoration of previous citizenship.
DECLARATION OF RIGHTS
APPLICATION AND INTERPRETATION OF CHAPTER 4
44. Duty to respect fundamental human rights and freedoms.
45. Application of Chapter 4.
46. Interpretation of Chapter 4.
47. Chapter 4 does not preclude existence of other rights.
FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS
48. Right to life.
49. Right to personal liberty.
50. Rights of arrested and detained persons.
51. Right to human dignity.
52. Right to personal security.
53. Freedom from torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
54. Freedom from slavery or servitude
55. Freedom from forced or compulsory labour.
56. Equality and non-discrimination.
57. Right to privacy.
58. Freedom of assembly and association.
59. Freedom to demonstrate and petition.
60. Freedom of conscience.
61. Freedom of expression and freedom of the media.
62. Access to information.
63. Language and culture.
64. Freedom of profession, trade or occupation.
65. Labour rights.
66. Freedom of movement and residence.
67. Political rights.
68. Right to administrative justice.
69. Right to a fair hearing.
70. Rights of accused persons.
71. Property rights.
72. Rights to agricultural land.
73. Environmental rights.
74. Freedom from arbitrary eviction.
75. Right to education.
76. Right to health care.
77. Right to food and water.
78. Marriage rights.
ELABORATION OF CERTAIN RIGHTS
79. Application of Part 3.
80. Rights of women.
81. Rights of children.
82. Rights of the elderly.
83. Rights of persons with disabilities.
84. Rights of veterans of the liberation struggle.
ENFORCEMENT OF FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS
85. Enforcement of fundamental human rights and freedoms.
LIMITATION OF FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS
86. Limitation of rights and freedoms.
87. Limitations during public emergency.
88. Executive authority.
THE PRESIDENT AND VICE-PRESIDENTS
89. The President.
90. Duties of President.
91. Qualifications for election as President and Vice-President.
92. Election of President and Vice-Presidents.
93. Challenge to presidential election.
94. Assumption of office by President and Vice-Presidents.
95. Term of office of President and Vice-Presidents.
96. Resignation of President or Vice-President.
97. Removal of President or Vice-President from office.
98. Presidential immunity.
99. Functions of Vice-Presidents
100. Acting President.
101. Succession in event of death, resignation or incapacity of President or Vice-President.
102. Remuneration of President and Vice-Presidents.
103. President and Vice-Presidents and former office-holders not to hold other office or employment.
MINISTERS, DEPUTY MINISTERS AND CABINET
104. Appointment of Ministers and Deputy Ministers.
106. Conduct of Vice-Presidents, Ministers and Deputy Ministers.
107. Accountability of Vice-Presidents, Ministers and Deputy Ministers.
108. Tenure of office of Ministers and Deputy Ministers.
109. Vote of no confidence in Government.
110. Executive functions of President and Cabinet.
111. War and peace.
112. Power of mercy.
113. States of public emergency.
115. Removal from office of Attorney-General.
116. The Legislature.
117. Nature and extent of legislative authority.
NATURE AND ROLE OF PARLIAMENT
119. Role of Parliament.
120. Composition of Senate.
121. Qualifications and disqualifications for election as Senator.
122. President of Senate.
123. Deputy President of Senate.
THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
124. Composition of National Assembly.
125. Qualifications and disqualifications for election to National Assembly.
126. Speaker of National Assembly.
127. Deputy Speaker of National Assembly.
TENURE OF MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT
128. Oath of Member of Parliament.
129. Tenure of seat of Member of Parliament.
LEGISLATIVE AND OTHER POWERS
130. Powers and functions of Senate and National Assembly.
131. Acts of Parliament and procedure for their enactment.
132. Commencement of Acts of Parliament.
133. Enrolment of Acts of Parliament.
134. Subsidiary legislation.
PROCEDURE IN PARLIAMENT
135. Head of Parliament.
136. Persons presiding in Parliament.
137. Quorum in Parliament.
138. Voting and right of audience in Parliament.
139. Standing Orders.
140. Presidential addresses and messages to Parliament.
141. Public access to and involvement in Parliament.
142. Validity of proceedings in Parliament.
DURATION, DISSOLUTION AND SITTINGS OF PARLIAMENT
143. Duration and dissolution of Parliament.
144. General election resulting from dissolution of Parliament.
145. First sitting of Parliament following general election.
146. Sittings and recess periods.
147. Lapsing of Bills, motions, petitions and other business on dissolution of Parliament.
GENERAL MATTERS RELATING TO PARLIAMENT
148. Privileges and immunities of Parliament.
149. Right to petition Parliament.
150. Venue of Parliament.
151. Committee on Standing Rules and Orders.
152. Parliamentary Legal Committee.
153. Remuneration of President of Senate, Speaker and Members of Parliament.
154. Clerk of Parliament and other staff.
ELECTORAL SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES
155. Principles of electoral system.
156. Conduct of elections and referendums.
157. Electoral Law.
TIMING OF ELECTIONS
158. Timing of elections.
159. Filling of electoral vacancies.
DELIMITATION OF ELECTORAL BOUNDARIES
160. Number of constituencies and wards.
161. Delimitation of electoral boundaries.
THE JUDICIARY AND THE COURTS
THE COURT SYSTEM
162. Judicial authority.
163. The judiciary.
164. Independence of judiciary.
165. Principles guiding judiciary.
166. Constitutional Court.
167. Jurisdiction of Constitutional Court.
168. Supreme Court.
169. Jurisdiction of Supreme Court.
170. High Court.
171. Jurisdiction of High Court.
172. Labour Court.
173. Administrative Court.
174. Other courts and tribunals.
175. Powers of courts in constitutional matters.
176. Inherent powers of Constitutional Court, Supreme Court and High Court.
APPOINTMENT AND TENURE OF MEMBERS OF JUDICIARY
177. Qualifications of judges of Constitutional Court.
178. Qualifications of judges of Supreme Court.
179. Qualifications of judges of High Court, Labour Court and Administrative Court.
180. Appointment of judges.
181. Acting judicial appointments.
182. Appointment of magistrates and other members of judiciary.
183. Judicial officers not to be appointed to more than one court.
184. Judicial appointments to reflect society.
185. Oath of office.
186. Tenure of office of judges.
187. Removal of judges from office.
188. Conditions of service and tenure of members of judiciary.
JUDICIAL SERVICE COMMISSION
189. Establishment and composition of Judicial Service Commission.
190. Functions of Judicial Service Commission.
191. Fairness and transparency of proceedings of Judicial Service Commission.
192. Law to be administered.
193. Criminal jurisdiction of courts.
PRINCIPLES OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND LEADERSHIP
194. Basic values and principles governing public administration.
195. State-controlled commercial entities.
196. Responsibilities of public officers and principles of leadership.
197. Terms of office of heads of government-controlled entities.
198. Legislation to enforce Chapter 9.
199. Civil Service.
200. Conduct of members of Civil Service.
201. Minister responsible for Civil Service.
202. Establishment and composition of Civil Service Commission.
203. Functions of Civil Service Commission.
204. Ambassadors and other principal representatives of Zimbabwe.
205. Permanent Secretaries.
206. National security.
207. Security services.
208. Conduct of members of security services.
209. National Security Council.
210. Independent complaints mechanism.
211. Defence Forces.
212. Function of Defence Forces.
213. Deployment of Defence Forces.
214. Political accountability for deployment of Defence Forces.
215. Minister responsible for Defence Forces.
216. Command of Defence Forces.
217. Establishment and composition of Defence Forces Service Commission.
218. Functions of Defence Forces Service Commission.
219. Police Service and its functions.
220. Minister responsible for Police Service.
221. Commissioner-General of Police.
222. Establishment and composition of Police Service Commission.
223. Functions of Police Service Commission.
224. Establishment of intelligence services.
225. Minister responsible for national intelligence service.
226. Command or control of national intelligence service.
PRISONS AND CORRECTIONAL SERVICE
227. Prisons and Correctional Service and its functions.
228. Minister responsible for Prisons and Correctional Service.
229. Commissioner-General of Prisons and Correctional Service.
230. Establishment and composition of Prisons and Correctional Service Commission.
231. Functions of Prisons and Correctional Service Commission.
INDEPENDENT COMMISSIONS SUPPORTING DEMOCRACY
232. Independent Commissions.
233. Objectives of independent Commissions.
234. Staff of independent Commissions.
235. Independence of Commissions.
236. Members of independent Commissions to be non-political.
237. Removal from office of members of independent Commissions.
ZIMBABWE ELECTORAL COMMISSION
238. Establishment and composition of Zimbabwe Electoral Commission.
239. Functions of Zimbabwe Electoral Commission.
240. Disqualifications for appointment to Zimbabwe Electoral Commission.
241. Zimbabwe Electoral Commission to report on elections and referendums.
ZIMBABWE HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION
242. Establishment and composition of Zimbabwe Human Rights Commission.
243. Functions of Zimbabwe Human Rights Commission.
244. Reports to and by Zimbabwe Human Rights Commission.
ZIMBABWE GENDER COMMISSION
245. Establishment and composition of Zimbabwe Gender Commission.
246. Functions of Zimbabwe Gender Commission.
247. Reports by Zimbabwe Gender Commission.
ZIMBABWE MEDIA COMMISSION
248. Establishment and composition of Zimbabwe Media Commission.
249. Functions of Zimbabwe Media Commission.
250. Reports of Zimbabwe Media Commission.
NATIONAL PEACE AND RECONCILIATION COMMISSION
251. Establishment and composition of National Peace and Reconciliation Commission.
252. Functions of National Peace and Reconciliation Commission.
253. Reports of National Peace and Reconciliation Commission.
INSTITUTIONS TO COMBAT CORRUPTION AND CRIME
ZIMBABWE ANTI-CORRUPTION COMMISSION
254. Establishment and composition of Zimbabwe Anti-Corruption Commission.
255. Functions of Zimbabwe Anti-Corruption Commission.
256. Application of certain provisions of Chapter 12 to Zimbabwe Anti-Corruption
257. Reports by Zimbabwe Anti-Corruption Commission.
NATIONAL PROSECUTING AUTHORITY
258. Establishment and functions of National Prosecuting Authority.
259. Prosecutor-General and other officers.
260. Independence of Prosecutor-General.
261. Conduct of officers of National Prosecuting Authority.
262. Prosecutor-General to report annually to Parliament.
263. Other powers of prosecution.
PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT
264. Devolution of governmental powers and responsibilities.
265. General principles of provincial and local government.
266. Conduct of employees of provincial and local governments.
PROVINCES AND PROVINCIAL AND METROPOLITAN COUNCILS
267. Provinces and districts of Zimbabwe.
268. Provincial councils.
269. Metropolitan councils.
270. Functions of provincial and metropolitan councils.
271. Committees of provincial and metropolitan councils.
272. Chairpersons of provincial and metropolitan councils.
273. General provisions relating to provincial and metropolitan councils.
274. Urban local authorities
275. Local authorities for rural areas.
276. Functions of local authorities.
277. Elections to local authorities.
278. Tenure of seats of members of local authorities.
279. Procedure of local authorities.
280. Traditional leadership.
281. Principles to be observed by traditional leaders.
282. Functions of traditional leaders.
283. Appointment and removal of traditional leaders.
284. Remuneration and benefits of traditional leaders.
285. National Council and provincial assemblies of Chiefs.
286. Functions of National Council and provincial assemblies of Chiefs.
287. Integrity and Ethics Committee.
288. Interpretation in Chapter 16.
289. Principles guiding policy on agricultural land.
290. Continuation of rights of State in agricultural land.
291. Continuation of rights of occupiers of agricultural land.
292. Security of tenure for occupiers of agricultural land.
293. Alienation of agricultural land by State.
294. Alienation of agricultural land by owners or occupiers.
295. Compensation for acquisition of previously-acquired agricultural land.
296. Establishment and composition of Zimbabwe Land Commission.
297. Functions of Zimbabwe Land Commission.
298. Principles of public financial management.
299. Parliamentary oversight of State revenues and expenditure.
300. Limits of State borrowings, public debt and State guarantees.
301. Allocation of revenues between provincial and local tiers of government.
CONSOLIDATED REVENUE FUND
302. Consolidated Revenue Fund.
303. Withdrawals from Consolidated Revenue Fund.
304. Charges upon Consolidated Revenue Fund.
AUTHORISATION OF EXPENDITURE FROM CONSOLIDATED REVENUE FUND
305. Appropriations from Consolidated Revenue Fund.
306. Authorisation of expenditure in advance of appropriation.
307. Unauthorised expenditure.
SAFEGUARDING OF PUBLIC FUNDS AND PROPERTY
308. Duties of custodians of public funds and property.
309. Auditor-General and his or her functions.
310. Appointment of Auditor-General.
311. Independence of Auditor-General.
312. Remuneration of Auditor-General.
313. Removal of Auditor-General from office.
314. Staff of Auditor-General.
315. Procurement and other governmental contracts.
316. Management of statutory bodies.
317. Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe.
GENERAL AND SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS
GENERAL PROVISIONS AS TO COMMISSIONS
318. Application of Part 1.
319. Commissions to be bodies corporate.
320. Membership of Commissions and conditions of service of members.
321. Functions and procedure of Commissions.
322. Funding of Commissions.
323. Commissions to report annually to Parliament.
324. Diligent performance of constitutional obligations.
325. Funding of constitutional bodies and other institutions.
326. Customary international law.
327. International conventions, treaties and agreements.
328. Amendment of Constitution.
329. Commencement of Constitution, transitional provisions and savings.
330. Application of Part 3.
331. General principles of interpretation of the Constitution.
333. References to Chapters, sections, etc.
334. Words in singular to include plural, and vice versa.
335. Tables and headings.
336. References to time.
337. References to holders of office.
338. References to Parliament.
339. Advice and consultation.
342. Exercise of functions, etc.
343. When person not regarded as holding public office.
344. Quorum and effect of vacancies in constitutional bodies.
345. Inconsistencies between different texts of Constitution.
FIRST SCHEDULE: National Flag, National Anthem, National Coat of Arms and Public
SECOND SCHEDULE: Limitations on Rights During Public Emergencies. THIRD SCHEDULE: Oaths and Affirmations.
FOURTH SCHEDULE: Qualifications for Voters.
FIFTH SCHEDULE: Procedure as to Bills and Other Matters in Parliament.
SIXTH SCHEDULE: Commencement of this Constitution, Transitional Provisions and
We the people of Zimbabwe,
United in our diversity by our common desire for freedom, justice and equality, and our heroic resistance to colonialism, racism and all forms of domination and oppression,
Exalting and extolling the brave men and women who sacrificed their lives during the
Chimurenga / Umvukela and national liberation struggles,
Honouring our forebears and compatriots who toiled for the progress of our country, Recognising the need to entrench democracy, good, transparent and accountable
governance and the rule of law,
Reaffirming our commitment to upholding and defending fundamental human rights and freedoms,
Acknowledging the richness of our natural resources, Celebrating the vibrancy of our traditions and cultures,
Determined to overcome all challenges and obstacles that impede our progress,
Cherishing freedom, equality, peace, justice, tolerance, prosperity and patriotism in search of new frontiers under a common destiny,
Acknowledging the supremacy of Almighty God, in whose hands our future lies,
Resolve by the tenets of this Constitution to commit ourselves to build a united, just and prosperous nation, founded on values of transparency, equality, freedom, fairness, honesty and the dignity of hard work,
And, imploring the guidance and support of Almighty God, hereby make this
Constitution and commit ourselves to it as the fundamental law of our beloved land.
1 The Republic
Zimbabwe is a unitary, democratic and sovereign republic.
2 Supremacy of Constitution
(1) This Constitution is the supreme law of Zimbabwe and any law, practice, custom or conduct inconsistent with it is invalid to the extent of the inconsistency.
(2) The obligations imposed by this Constitution are binding on every person, natural or juristic, including the State and all executive, legislative and judicial institutions and agencies of government at every level, and must be fulfilled by them.
3 Founding values and principles
(1) Zimbabwe is founded on respect for the following values and principles√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) supremacy of the Constitution; (b) the rule of law;
(c) fundamental human rights and freedoms;
(d) the nation√¢‚Ç¨‚Ñ¢s diverse cultural, religious and traditional values;
(e) recognition of the inherent dignity and worth of each human being; (f) recognition of the equality of all human beings;
(g) gender equality;
(h) good governance; and
(i) recognition of and respect for the liberation struggle.
(2) The principles of good governance, which bind the State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level, include√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) a multi-party democratic political system; (b) an electoral system based on√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(i) universal adult suffrage;
(ii) free, fair and regular elections; and
(iii) adequate representation of the electorate; (c) the orderly transfer of power following elections; (d) respect for the rights of all political parties;
(e) observance of the principle of separation of powers;
(f) respect for the people of Zimbabwe, from whom the authority to govern is derived; (g) transparency, justice, accountability and responsiveness;
(h) the fostering of national unity, peace and stability, with due regard to diversity of languages, customary practices and traditions;
(i) recognition of the rights of√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(i) ethnic, racial, cultural, linguistic and religious groups; (ii) persons with disabilities;
(iii) women, the elderly, youths and children; (iv) veterans of the liberation struggle;
(j) the equitable sharing of national resources, including land; (k) due respect for vested rights; and
(l) the devolution and decentralisation of governmental power and functions.
4 National Flag, National Anthem, Public Seal and Coat of arms
Zimbabwe has a National Flag, a National Anthem, a Coat of Arms and a Public Seal, which are set out in the First Schedule.
5 Tiers of government
The tiers of government in Zimbabwe are√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) the national Government;
(b) provincial and metropolitan councils; and
(c) local authorities, that is to say√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(i) urban councils, by whatever name called, to represent and manage the affairs of people in urban areas; and
(ii) rural councils, by whatever name called, to represent and manage the affairs of people in rural areas within the districts into which the provinces are divided.
(1) The following languages, namely Chewa, Chibarwe, English, Kalanga, Koisan, Nambya, Ndau, Ndebele, Shangani, Shona, sign language, Sotho, Tonga, Tswana, Venda and Xhosa, are the officially recognised languages of Zimbabwe.
(2) An Act of Parliament may prescribe other languages as officially recognised languages and may prescribe languages of record.
(3) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) ensure that all officially recognised languages are treated equitably; and
(b) take into account the language preferences of people affected by governmental measures or communications.
(4) The State must promote and advance the use of all languages used in Zimbabwe, including sign language, and must create conditions for the development of those languages.
7 Promotion of public awareness of Constitution
The State must promote public awareness of this Constitution, in particular by√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) translating it into all officially recognised languages and disseminating it as widely as possible;
(b) requiring this Constitution to be taught in schools and as part of the curricula for the training of members of the security services, the Civil Service and members and employees of public institutions; and
(c) encouraging all persons and organisations, including civic organisations, to disseminate awareness and knowledge of this Constitution throughout society.
8 Objectives to guide State and all institutions and agencies of Government
(1) The objectives set out in this Chapter guide the State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level in formulating and implementing laws and policy decisions that will lead to the establishment, enhancement and promotion of a sustainable, just, free and democratic society in which people enjoy prosperous, happy and fulfilling lives.
(2) Regard must be had to the objectives set out in this Chapter when interpreting the
State√¢‚Ç¨‚Ñ¢s obligations under this Constitution and any other law.
9 Good governance
(1) The State must adopt and implement policies and legislation to develop efficiency, competence, accountability, transparency, personal integrity and financial probity in all institutions and agencies of government at every level and in every public institution, and in particular√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) appointments to public offices must be made primarily on the basis of merit;
(b) measures must be taken to expose, combat and eradicate all forms of corruption and abuse of power by those holding political and public offices.
(2) The State must ensure that all institutions and agencies of government at every level, in particular Commissions and other bodies established by or under this Constitution, are provided with adequate resources and facilities to enable them to carry out their functions conscientiously, fairly, honestly and efficiently.
10 National unity, peace and stability
The State and every person, including juristic persons, and every institution and agency of government at every level, must promote national unity, peace and stability.
11 Fostering of fundamental rights and freedoms
The State must take all practical measures to protect the fundamental rights and freedoms enshrined in Chapter 4 and to promote their full realisation and fulfilment.
12 Foreign policy
(1) The foreign policy of Zimbabwe must be based on the following principles√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) the promotion and protection of the national interests of Zimbabwe; (b) respect for international law;
(c) peaceful co-existence with other nations; and
(d) the settlement of international disputes by peaceful means.
(2) The State must promote regional and pan-African cultural, economic and political co- operation and integration and must participate in international and regional organisations that stand for peace and the well-being and progress of the region, the continent and humanity.
13 National development
(1) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must endeavour to facilitate rapid and equitable development, and in particular must take measures to√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) promote private initiative and self-reliance;
(b) foster agricultural, commercial, industrial, technological and scientific development;
(c) foster the development of industrial and commercial enterprises in order to empower
Zimbabwean citizens; and
(d) bring about balanced development of the different areas of Zimbabwe, in particular a proper balance in the development of rural and urban areas.
(2) Measures referred to in this section must involve the people in the formulation and implementation of development plans and programmes that affect them.
(3) Measures referred to in this section must protect and enhance the right of the people, particularly women, to equal opportunities in development.
(4) The State must ensure that local communities benefit from the resources in their areas.
14 Empowerment and employment creation
(1) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must endeavour to facilitate and take measures to empower, through appropriate, transparent, fair and just affirmative action, all marginalised persons, groups and communities in Zimbabwe.
(2) At all times the State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must ensure that appropriate and adequate measures are undertaken to create employment for all Zimbabweans, especially women and youths.
15 Food security
The State must√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) encourage people to grow and store adequate food;
(b) secure the establishment of adequate food reserves; and
(c) encourage and promote adequate and proper nutrition through mass education and other appropriate means.
(1) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must promote and preserve cultural values and practices which enhance the dignity, well-being and equality of Zimbabweans.
(2) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level, and all
Zimbabwean citizens, must endeavour to preserve and protect Zimbabwe√¢‚Ç¨‚Ñ¢s heritage.
(3) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must take measures to ensure due respect for the dignity of traditional institutions.
17 Gender balance
(1) The State must promote full gender balance in Zimbabwean society, and in particular√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) the State must promote the full participation of women in all spheres of Zimbabwean society on the basis of equality with men;
(b) the State must take all measures, including legislative measures, needed to ensure that√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(i) both genders are equally represented in all institutions and agencies of government at every level; and
(ii) women constitute at least half the membership of all Commissions and other elective and appointed governmental bodies established by or under this Constitution or any Act of Parliament;
(c) the State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must take practical measures to ensure that women have access to resources, including land, on the basis of equality with men.
(2) The State must take positive measures to rectify gender discrimination and imbalances resulting from past practices and policies.
18 Fair regional representation
(1) The State must promote the fair representation of all Zimbabwe√¢‚Ç¨‚Ñ¢s regions in all institutions and agencies of government at every level.
(2) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must take practical measures to ensure that all local communities have equitable access to resources to promote their development.
(1) The State must adopt policies and measures to ensure that in matters relating to children, the best interests of the children concerned are paramount.
(2) The State must adopt reasonable policies and measures, within the limits of the resources available to it, to ensure that children√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) enjoy family or parental care, or appropriate care when removed from the family environment;
(b) have shelter and basic nutrition, health care and social services;
(c) are protected from maltreatment, neglect or any form of abuse; and
(d) have access to appropriate education and training.
(3) The State must take appropriate legislative and other measures√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) to protect children from exploitative labour practices; and
(b) to ensure that children are not required or permitted to perform work or provide services that√Ø‚Äö¬æ
(i) are inappropriate for the children√¢‚Ç¨‚Ñ¢s age; or
(ii) place at risk the children√¢‚Ç¨‚Ñ¢s well-being, education, physical or mental health or spiritual, moral or social development.
(1) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must take reasonable measures, including affirmative action programmes, to ensure that youths, that is to say people between the ages of fifteen and thirty-five years√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) have access to appropriate education and training;
(b) have opportunities to associate and to be represented and participate in political, social, economic and other spheres of life;
(c) are afforded opportunities for employment and other avenues to economic empowerment;
(d) have opportunities for recreational activities and access to recreational facilities; and
(e) are protected from harmful cultural practices, exploitation and all forms of abuse. (2) An Act of Parliament may provide for one or more national youth programmes.
(3) Measures and programmes referred to in subsections (1) and (2) must be inclusive, non- partisan and national in character.
21 Elderly persons
(1) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must take reasonable measures, including legislative measures, to secure respect, support and protection for elderly persons and to enable them to participate in the life of their communities.
(2) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must endeavour, within the limits of the resources available to them√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) to encourage elderly persons to participate fully in the affairs of society;
(b) to provide facilities, food and social care for elderly persons who are in need;
(c) to develop programmes to give elderly persons the opportunity to engage in productive activity suited to their abilities and consistent with their vocations and desires; and
(d) to foster social organisations aimed at improving the quality of life of elderly persons.
22 Persons with disabilities
(1) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must recognise the rights of persons with physical or mental disabilities, in particular their right to be treated with respect and dignity.
(2) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must, within the limits of the resources available to them, assist persons with physical or mental disabilities to achieve their full potential and to minimise the disadvantages suffered by them.
(3) In particular, the State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) develop programmes for the welfare of persons with physical or mental disabilities, especially work programmes consistent with their capabilities and acceptable to them or their legal representatives;
(b) consider the specific requirements of persons with all forms of disability as one of the priorities in development plans;
(c) encourage the use and development of forms of communication suitable for persons with physical or mental disabilities; and
(d) foster social organisations aimed at improving the quality of life of persons with all forms of disability.
(4) The State must take appropriate measures to ensure that buildings and amenities to which the public has access are accessible to persons with disabilities.
23 Veterans of the liberation struggle
(1) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must accord due respect, honour and recognition to veterans of the liberation struggle, that is to say√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) those who fought in the War of Liberation;
(b) those who assisted the fighters in the War of Liberation; and
(c) those who were imprisoned, detained or restricted for political reasons during the liberation struggle.
(2) The State must take reasonable measures, including legislative measures, for the welfare and economic empowerment of veterans of the liberation struggle.
24 Work and labour relations
(1) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must adopt reasonable policies and measures, within the limits of the resources available to them, to provide everyone with an opportunity to work in a freely chosen activity, in order to secure a decent living for themselves and their families.
(2) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must endeavour to secure√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) full employment;
(b) the removal of restrictions that unnecessarily inhibit or prevent people from working and otherwise engaging in gainful economic activities;
(c) vocational guidance and the development of vocational and training programmes, including those for persons with disabilities; and
(d) the implementation of measures such as family care that enable women to enjoy a real opportunity to work.
25 Protection of the family
The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must protect and foster the institution of the family and in particular must endeavour, within the limits of the resources available to them, to adopt measures for√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) the provision of care and assistance to mothers, fathers and other family members who have charge of children; and
(b) the prevention of domestic violence.
The State must take appropriate measures to ensure that√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) no marriage is entered into without the free and full consent of the intending spouses;
(b) children are not pledged in marriage;
(c) there is equality of rights and obligations of spouses during marriage and at its dissolution; and
(d) in the event of dissolution of a marriage, whether through death or divorce, provision is made for the necessary protection of any children and spouses.
(1) The State must take all practical measures to promote√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù (a) free and compulsory basic education for children; and (b) higher and tertiary education.
(2) The State must take measures to ensure that girls are afforded the same opportunities as boys to obtain education at all levels.
The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must take reasonable legislative and other measures, within the limits of the resources available to them, to enable every person to have access to adequate shelter.
29 Health services
(1) The State must take all practical measures to ensure the provision of basic, accessible and adequate health services throughout Zimbabwe.
(2) The State must take appropriate, fair and reasonable measures to ensure that no person is refused emergency medical treatment at any health institution.
(3) The State must take all preventive measures within the limits of the resources available to it, including education and public awareness programmes, against the spread of disease.
30 Social welfare
The State must take all practical measures, within the limits of the resources available to it, to provide social security and social care to those who are in need.
31 Legal aid
The State must take all practical measures, within the limits of the resources available to it, to provide legal representation in civil and criminal cases for people who need it and are unable to afford legal practitioners of their choice.
32 Sporting and recreational facilities
The State must take all practical measures to encourage sporting and recreational activities, including the provision of sporting and recreational facilities for all people.
33 Preservation of traditional knowledge
The State must take measures to preserve, protect and promote indigenous knowledge systems, including knowledge of the medicinal and other properties of animal and plant life possessed by local communities and people.
34 Domestication of international instruments
The State must ensure that all international conventions, treaties and agreements to which
Zimbabwe is a party are incorporated into domestic law.
35 Zimbabwean citizenship
(1) Persons are Zimbabwean citizens by birth, descent or registration.
(2) All Zimbabwean citizens are equally entitled to the rights, privileges and benefits of citizenship and are equally subject to the duties and obligations of citizenship.
(3) All Zimbabwean citizens are entitled to the following rights and benefits, in addition to any others granted to them by law√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) to the protection of the State wherever they may be; (b) to passports and other travel documents; and
(c) to birth certificates and other identity documents issued by the State.
(4) Zimbabwean citizens have the following duties, in addition to any others imposed upon them by law√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) to be loyal to Zimbabwe;
(b) to observe this Constitution and to respect its ideals and institutions; (c) to respect the national flag and the national anthem; and
(d) to the best of their ability, to defend Zimbabwe and its sovereignty.
36 Citizenship by birth
(1) Persons are Zimbabwean citizens by birth if they were born in Zimbabwe and, when they were born√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) either their mother or their father was a Zimbabwean citizen; or
(b) any of their grandparents was a Zimbabwean citizen by birth or descent.
(2) Persons born outside Zimbabwe are Zimbabwean citizens by birth if, when they were born, either of their parents was a Zimbabwean citizen and√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) ordinarily resident in Zimbabwe; or
(b) working outside Zimbabwe for the State or an international organisation.
(3) A child found in Zimbabwe who is, or appears to be, less than fifteen years of age, and whose nationality and parents are not known, is presumed to be a Zimbabwean citizen by birth.
37 Citizenship by descent
(1) Persons born outside Zimbabwe are Zimbabwean citizens by descent if, when they were born√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) either of their parents or any of their grandparents was a Zimbabwean citizen by birth or descent; or
(b) either of their parents was a Zimbabwean citizen by registration;
and the birth is registered in Zimbabwe in accordance with the law relating to the registration of births.
(2) Subsection (1) does not affect a person√¢‚Ç¨‚Ñ¢s right to citizenship by birth under section 36.
38 Citizenship by registration
(1) Any person who has been married to a Zimbabwean citizen for at least five years, whether before or after the effective date, and who satisfies the conditions prescribed by an Act of Parliament, is entitled, on application, to be registered as a Zimbabwean citizen.
(2) Any person who has been continuously and lawfully resident in Zimbabwe for at least ten years, whether before or after the effective date, and who satisfies the conditions prescribed by an Act of Parliament, is entitled, on application, to be registered as a Zimbabwean citizen.
(3) A child who is not a Zimbabwean citizen, but is adopted by a Zimbabwean citizen, whether before or after the effective date, is entitled, on application, to be registered as a Zimbabwean citizen.
39 Revocation of citizenship
(1) Zimbabwean citizenship by registration may be revoked if√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) the person concerned acquired the citizenship by fraud, false representation or concealment of a material fact; or
(b) during a war in which Zimbabwe was engaged, the person concerned unlawfully traded or communicated with an enemy or was engaged in or associated with any business that was knowingly carried on so as to assist an enemy in that war.
(2) Zimbabwean citizenship by birth acquired under section 36 may be revoked if√¢‚Ç¨‚Äú√¢‚Ç¨‚Äú
(a) the citizenship was acquired by fraud, false representation or concealment of a material fact by any person; or
(b) the person√¢‚Ç¨‚Ñ¢s nationality or parentage becomes known, and reveals that the person was
a citizen of another country.
(3) Zimbabwean citizenship must not be revoked under this section if the person would be rendered stateless.
40 Retention of citizenship despite marriage or dissolution of marriage
Zimbabwean citizenship is not lost through marriage or the dissolution of marriage.
41 Citizenship and Immigration Board
An Act of Parliament must provide for the establishment of a Citizenship and Immigration Board consisting of a chairperson and at least two other members, appointed by the President, to be responsible for√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) granting and revoking citizenship by registration;
(b) permitting persons, other than citizens, to reside and work in Zimbabwe, and fixing the terms and conditions under which they may so reside and work; and
(c) exercising any other functions that may be conferred or imposed on the Board by or under an Act of Parliament.
42 Powers of Parliament in regard to citizenship
An Act of Parliament may make provision, consistent with this Chapter, for√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) procedures by which Zimbabwean citizenship by registration may be acquired; (b) the voluntary renunciation of Zimbabwean citizenship;
(c) procedures for the revocation of Zimbabwean citizenship by registration; (d) the restoration of Zimbabwean citizenship;
(e) the prohibition of dual citizenship in respect of citizens by descent or registration; and
(f) generally giving effect to this Chapter.
43 Continuation and restoration of previous citizenship
(1) Every person who, immediately before the effective date, was a Zimbabwean citizen continues to be a Zimbabwean citizen after that date.
(2) Every person who was born in Zimbabwe before the effective date is a Zimbabwean citizen by birth if√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) one or both of his or her parents was a citizen of a country which became a member of the Southern African Development Community established by the treaty signed at Windhoek in the Republic of Namibia on the 17th August, 1992; and
(b) he or she was ordinarily resident in Zimbabwe on the effective date.
DECLARATION OF RIGHTS
APPLICATION AND INTERPRETATION OF CHAPTER 4
44 Duty to respect fundamental human rights and freedoms
The State and every person, including juristic persons, and every institution and agency of the government at every level must respect, protect, promote and fulfil the rights and freedoms set out in this Chapter.
45 Application of Chapter 4
(1) This Chapter binds the State and all executive, legislative and judicial institutions and agencies of government at every level.
(2) This Chapter binds natural and juristic persons to the extent that it is applicable to them, taking into account the nature of the right or freedom concerned and any duty imposed by it.
(3) Juristic persons as well as natural persons are entitled to the rights and freedoms set out in this Chapter to the extent that those rights and freedoms can appropriately be extended to them.
46 Interpretation of Chapter 4
(1) When interpreting this Chapter, a court, tribunal, forum or body√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) must give full effect to the rights and freedoms enshrined in this Chapter;
(b) must promote the values and principles that underlie a democratic society based on openness, justice, human dignity, equality and freedom, and in particular, the values and principles set out in section 3;
(c) must take into account international law and all treaties and conventions to which
Zimbabwe is a party;
(d) must pay due regard to all the provisions of this Constitution, in particular the principles and objectives set out in Chapter 2; and
(e) may consider relevant foreign law;
in addition to considering all other relevant factors that are to be taken into account in the interpretation of a Constitution.
(2) When interpreting an enactment, and when developing the common law and customary law, every court, tribunal, forum or body must promote and be guided by the spirit and objectives of this Chapter.
47 Chapter 4 does not preclude existence of other rights
This Chapter does not preclude the existence of other rights and freedoms that may be recognised or conferred by law, to the extent that they are consistent with this Chapter.
FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS
48 Right to life
(1) Every person has the right to life.
(2) A law may permit the death penalty to be imposed only on a person convicted of murder committed in aggravating circumstances, and√Ø‚Äö¬æ
(a) the penalty may be carried out only in accordance with a final judgment of a competent court;
(b) the penalty must not be imposed on a person√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(i) who was less than twenty-one years old when the offence was committed; or
(ii) who is more than seventy years old;
(c) the penalty must not be imposed or carried out on a woman;
(d) the law must permit the court a discretion whether or not to impose the penalty; and
(e) the person sentenced must have a right to seek pardon or commutation of the penalty from the President.
(3) An Act of Parliament must protect the lives of unborn children, and that Act must provide that pregnancy may be terminated only in accordance with that law.
49 Right to personal liberty
(1) Every person has the right to personal liberty, which includes the right√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) not to be detained without trial; and
(b) not to be deprived of their liberty arbitrarily or without just cause.
(2) No person may be imprisoned merely on the ground of inability to fulfil a contractual obligation.
50 Rights of arrested and detained persons
(1) Any person who is arrested√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) must be informed at the time of arrest of the reason for the arrest; (b) must be permitted, without delay√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(i) at the expense of the State, to contact their spouse or partner, or a relative or legal practitioner, or anyone else of their choice; and
(ii) at their own expense, to consult in private with a legal practitioner and a medical practitioner of their choice;
and must be informed of this right promptly;
(c) must be treated humanely and with respect for their inherent dignity;
(d) must be released unconditionally or on reasonable conditions, pending a charge or trial, unless there are compelling reasons justifying their continued detention; and
(e) must be permitted to challenge the lawfulness of the arrest in person before a court and must be released promptly if the arrest is unlawful.
(2) Any person who is arrested or detained√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) for the purpose of bringing him or her before a court; or
(b) for an alleged offence;
and who is not released must be brought before a court as soon as possible and in any event not later than forty-eight hours after the arrest took place or the detention began, as the case may be, whether or not the period ends on a Saturday, Sunday or public holiday.
(3) Any person who is not brought to court within the forty-eight hour period referred to in subsection (2) must be released immediately unless their detention has earlier been extended by a competent court.
(4) Any person who is arrested or detained for an alleged offence has the right√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) to remain silent;
(b) to be informed promptly√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(i) of their right to remain silent; and
(ii) of the consequences of remaining silent and of not remaining silent; (c) not to be compelled to make any confession or admission; and
(d) at the first court appearance after being arrested, to be charged or to be informed of the reason why their detention should continue, or to be released.
(5) Any person who is detained, including a sentenced prisoner, has the right√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) to be informed promptly of the reason for their being detained;
(b) at their own expense, to consult in private with a legal practitioner of their choice, and to be informed of this right promptly;
(c) to communicate with, and be visited by√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(i) a spouse or partner; (ii) a relative;
(iii) their chosen religious counsellor; (iv) their chosen legal practitioner;
(v) their chosen medical practitioner; and
(vi) subject to reasonable restrictions imposed for the proper administration of prisons or places of detention, anyone else of their choice;
(d) to conditions of detention that are consistent with human dignity, including the opportunity for physical exercise and the provision, at State expense, of adequate accommodation, ablution facilities, personal hygiene, nutrition, appropriate reading material and medical treatment; and
(e) to challenge the lawfulness of their detention in person before a court and, if the detention is unlawful, to be released promptly.
(6) Any person who is detained pending trial for an alleged offence and is not tried within a reasonable time must be released from detention, either unconditionally or on reasonable conditions to ensure that after being released they√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) attend trial;
(b) do not interfere with the evidence to be given at the trial; and
(c) do not commit any other offence before the trial begins.
(7) If there are reasonable grounds to believe that a person is being detained illegally or if it is not possible to ascertain the whereabouts of a detained person, any person may approach the High Court for an order√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) of habeas corpus, that is to say an order requiring the detained person to be released, or to be brought before the court for the lawfulness of the detention to be justified, or requiring the whereabouts of the detained person to be disclosed; or
(b) declaring the detention to be illegal and ordering the detained person√¢‚Ç¨‚Ñ¢s prompt release;
and the High Court may make whatever order is appropriate in the circumstances.
(8) An arrest or detention which contravenes this section, or in which the conditions set out in this section are not met, is illegal.
(9) Any person who has been illegally arrested or detained is entitled to compensation from the person responsible for the arrest or detention, but a law may protect the following persons from liability under this section√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) a judicial officer acting in a judicial capacity reasonably and in good faith;
(b) any other public officer acting reasonably and in good faith and without culpable ignorance or negligence.
51 Right to human dignity
Every person has inherent dignity in their private and public life, and the right to have that dignity respected and protected.
52 Right to personal security
Every person has the right to bodily and psychological integrity, which includes the right√¢‚Ç¨‚Äù
(a) to freedom from all forms of violence from public or private sources;
(b) subject to any other provision of this Constitution, to make decisions concerning reproduction;
(c) not to be subjected to medical or scientific experiments, or to the extraction or use of their bodily tissue, without their informed consent.
53 Freedom from torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment
No person may be sub
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